GREAT WATERFALLS OF THE WORLD
Waterfall can be defined as vertical movements of water that occurs where a band of hard rocks crosses the path of the river. The movement of the water from the river is less able to erode the hard rocks, thus leave the hard rocks as steep in the river’s long profile. The steepness of the hard rocks plays an important role in the water movements, such that the steeper the hard rock , the faster the water movement and thus more energy associated with water.
The energy due to the running water leads to abrasion and erosion. This erosive factor causes the waterfall to become less steep until it eventually out with the natural flow of the river (http://www.geographyhigh.connectfree.co.uk/). It takes many years for a waterfall to become extinct.
Most waterfalls are valuable sources of hydropower, as moving water turns the turbines that produces electricity.
The diagram illustrates the vertical movements of water as it falls from the hard rock, and making a pool at the base (plunge pool).
1. VICTORIA FALLS
The Victoria Falls are located on the Zambezi River, on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. They are roughly 1.7 km (1.7 mile) wide and 128 m (420 ft) high. Victoria Falls are considered a remarkable spectacle because of the peculiar narrow slot-like chasm into which the water falls. The falls are part of two national parks, Mosi-oa-Tunya NP in Zambia and Victoria falls national park in Zimbabwe; these are one of southern Africa main tourist attraction (http://en.wikipedia.org/).
The coordinates are –17°55'20.73"S 25°51'13.64"E[-17.9201217°25.852273°E]
2. RUACANA FALLS
Ruacana Falls are located on the border of Namibia and Angola; the falls are more or less controlled by a dam upstream. The Ruacana falls provide fresh water to the northern part of Namibia and the southern part of Angola. Also they are a valuable source of hydroelectric power and main attraction of tourist in Namibia.
3. NIAGARA FALLS
United State of America/Canada
The coordinates are 43°04'39.86"N -79°04'32.52"W [43.07331°N
Niagara Falls is a set of massive waterfalls located on the Niagara River in eastern America, on the border of the United State and Canada. The falls were formed after the receding of the glaciers of the most recent ice age, as water from the newly formed Great lakes carved a path through the Niagara escarpment enroute to the Atlantic Ocean, (http://en.wikipedia.org/). These falls are very wide and they are very valuable source of hydroelectric power for both Ontario and New York.
4. IGUAZU FALLS
These are water falls of the Iguazu River located on the border of Brazilian state of Parana (in the southern region) and the Argentine province of misiones. These waterfalls consist of about 270 falls along 2.7 kilometres (1.67 miles) of the Iguazu River. Some of the individual falls are up to 82 m (269 feet) in height, though the majority are about 64 metres (210 feet). The falls are shared by the Iguazu National Park (Argentina) and Iguazu National Park (Brazil) (http://en.wikipedia.org/).
5. ANGEL FALLS
The Angel Falls (indigenous name Kerepakupay Vena) is the world’s highest free-falling water falls at 979 m (3212 ft) with an uninterrupted drop of 807 m (2648 ft) lying in the Canaima National Park, Venezuela, and they are located in the river Churun, an affluent of the Carrao (http://en.wikipedia.org/). These falls were not known to the western world until an American aviator; James Crawford Angel visited the falls in 1935 on a flight while searching for a valuable ore bed (http://en.wikipedia.org).
The coordinates are 5°28'59.07"N -61°56'17.64"W [5.4765117°N
6. AUGRABIES FALLS
Republic of South Africa
Augrabies are water falls located about 120 km west of Upington in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. The falls covers an area of 820 km and stretches along the Orange River. These falls are in a dry area, and they are about 60 metres high. When the river in which they are found is flooded, these falls produces tremendous waterfalls.
The coordinates are –28°35'21.82"S 20°20'00.42"E [-28.58697°S 20.333403°E]
7. TUGELA FALLS
Tugela Falls are the world's second highest waterfall. The total drop in five free-leaping falls is 3,110 feet (947 meters). They are located in the Drakensberg (Dragon's Mountains) in the Royal Natal National Park in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/). These falls provide pure and safe drinking water to the people living in this provinnce.
8. YOSEMITE FALLS
Yosemite Falls is the highest measured waterfalls in North Amaerica. Located in Yosemite National Park in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Yosemite Falls is one of the major attraction in the park, especially in late spring when the water flow is at its peak (http://en.wikipedia.org/).Yosemite falls are regarded as one of the 6th highest falls in the world with a total of 2425 feet (739 m)distance from the top of the upper falls to the baseof the lower falls (http://en.wikipedia.org).
9. WALLAMAN FALLS
Wallaman Falls is a waterfall located in the northeast tropics region of Queensland, Australia, approximately 50 km West of the township of Ingham, and Northwest of Townsville and Thuringowa (http://en.wikipedia.org/). The falls have two main drops, the second of which is commonly cited to be Australia's largest single drop, between 268 and 305 m in height
10. MTARAZI FALLS
Mtarazi is a free leaping waterfall that leaps in the delicate tiers in the Eastern highlands of Zimbabwe. Mtarazi is the second tallest waterfall in the world.